Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

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Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 5:19 pm

Congratulations to all Egyptians that have taken their beliefs and breathed life into a cause that I am sure most Egyptians have prayed for these past three decades.
The announcement of Mubaraks total departure is to be met with jubilation.
And whilst everyone has a right, nay an obligation to celebrate, I hope those celebrating remain acutely aware that within any war, many battles are fought.
It is now that the Egyptian people must remain incredibly vigilant, to look beyond the face value of Mubaraks resignation, and to realise that whilst publicly he may have resigned, there remains a means to continue on for the regime.
Everyone is fighting for their survival here, including the regime.
With the implementation of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, of which Suleiman is a key member, the scope for oversight against inhumane acts is greater, however the influence of the US driven dictatorship remains.
Loyalties will be tested.
Division will be created.
It is with these thoughts hanging heavy in my heart I temper my jubilation.
I now present a list of key members of the Supreme Council for all to examine.

-Omar Suleiman, 74,

-Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, 75, who became the minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed forces in 1991, according to the network.

-On the Egypt Armed Forces website, Tantawi is listed second on the list of commanders behind the "Supreme Commander," Hosni Mubarak.

- Lt. Gen. Sami Hafez Anan, 63, who holds the title of Armed Forces Chief of Staff, according to the network. Anan is listed third on the armed forces website, behind Tantawi.

- Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed, 58, the air force chief, is also on the council, Al Jazeera reported.

- Lt. Gen. Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeein, the commander of air defense

- Vice Admiral Mohab Mamish, chief of the navy.

I hold these names up, so you can all examine their past and determine where their loyalties stands.
My thoughts and prayers are with the people of Egypt.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by Joe Bese on Fri Feb 11, 2011 5:47 pm

Photos of some of the Council, and Statements by the council here:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/10/world/middleeast/20110210-egypt-supreme-council.html?ref=middleeast
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 6:13 pm

This from the Washington post...

"Egyptian military officers are in the upper echelon of society," said one former U.S. general with extensive experience in the Middle East and Egypt who spoke on the condition of anonymity to preserve his relationships in the region. "The biggest question for the Egyptian military is whether or not there will be a whole-scale change in the Egyptian elite, because the senior military officers are so much a part of that elite. . . . They may be indifferent on whether Mubarak stays or leaves."

But current and former U.S. officials described the Egyptian General Staff as fairly unified in its support of Mubarak. "If you are a general in the Egyptian army, you are beholden to Mubarak. You were handpicked by Mubarak," said a former U.S. military official who spoke on the condition of anonymity because he still consults with the Egyptian armed forces. "What you have is bureaucrats who were promoted because they were good managers and were loyal to Mubarak and Tantawi."

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/04/AR2011020407250.html?nav=rss_email/components

A must read and is a very poignant reminder.

Within the follow link is an ambiguous statement by the council issued Friday.


The third included a promise not to detain "the honorable sons of the nation who rejected corruption and demanded reform," and stressed the importance of "resuming work at government's services, the return of normal life in order to preserve the interests and the achievements of our great people."

Keep in mind "normal life" for the Egyptian people consisted of repression, kidnapping, torture and murder.
http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/111640/20110212/egypt-high-military-council-egypt-supreme-council-of-armed-forces.htm

This link straight from the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website

Sixteen months after Sadat's visit to Israel, the Israel-Egypt peace treaty was signed in Washington. It contains nine articles, a military annex, an annex dealing with the relation between the parties, agreed minutes interpreting the main articles of the treaty, among them Article 6, the withdrawal schedule, exchange of ambassadors, security arrangements and the agreement relating to the autonomy talks. The latter issue was contained in a letter addressed by President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to President Carter.

In a separate Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement, concluded on the same day, the US spelled out its commitments to Israel in case the treaty is violated, the role of the UN and the future supply of military and economic aid to Israel.
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace Process/Guide to the Peace Process/Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty

Within the above link is the link to the US-Israel Memorandum of Agreement contain this broad-sweeping clause;
Should it be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the United States that there has been a violation or threat of violation of the Treaty of Peace, enhance friendly and peaceful relations between the parties and promote peace in the region, and will take such remedial measures as it deems appropriate, which may include diplomatic, economic and military measures as described below.
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace Process/Guide to the Peace Process/US-Israel Memorandum of Agreement

If there is a split in the US-Israel led Egyptian regimes puppet military, remedy exist for Israel to invoke this clause, allowing them to make demand of the US to honour same.

IMO, if the Egyptian people themselves are deemed to constitute a threat to the security of the Israeli nation, then remedy exists for Israel to invoke the relevant clause and demand remedy through Egypt's own military.

I am sure everyone is aware that under these treaites, the US has been supplying weapons to Egypt. In fact, Egypt has the tenth largest standing army in the world, despite rampart poverty amongst its people.


Cairo may have no apparent enemies, but the impoverished Egyptian state sinks massive resources into a military build up. According to the Congressional Research Service, it purchased $6.5 billion worth of foreign weapons in the years 2001-04, more than any other state in the Middle East. In contrast, the Israeli government bought only $4.4 billion worth during that period and the Saudi one $3.8 billion.
http://www.danielpipes.org/4146/rethinking-the-egypt-israel-peace-treaty

Egyptian people, be proud and celebrate. But please be aware, the regime is a proxy of Israel.
The Peace Treaty was signed to promote the peace of the Israeli nation, at the expense of oppression, kidnapping, torture and murder of the Egyptian people.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by Joe Bese on Fri Feb 11, 2011 6:28 pm

Are those your italics 4eva? That's an interesting interpretation, but I don't think it's the only one. It would be good to put the past away.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by goodmockingbird on Fri Feb 11, 2011 6:49 pm

Joe Bese wrote: It would be good to put the past away.

The Egyptians have set a new highwater mark for civilisation itself, no matter how one defines it.

Without the burden of corruption, they can prosper like never before and turn their energies to rebuilding their infrastructure and industry to new heights.

Egypt can become the shining beacon of the Mediteranean.

Fences make good neighbors, but industrious, prosperous, self-respecting people make wonderful neighbors.

If anything, Israel has less to be worried about now, than they did before.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 6:55 pm

The following link is a good read, and raises questions regarding the assassination of President Sadat.
By now and because of the internet age, we as individuals have access to a wealth of information never before available to the general population.
With this in mind, and taking into account many instances of exposed cover-ups, genocides and war by proxy, it is fair to assume that any assassination carried out on a political leader would most likely have an undercurrent of influence imposed by varied or specific governments.
This paragraph is, to me, very telling;

Hosni Mubarak, Egypt’s vice president at the time, assumed power and in
a speech to the Egyptian nation seven hours after the assassination
said that Egypt was “committed to all charters, treaties, and
international obligations that Egypt has concluded.”
That sent a sigh
of relief whistling around the globe, but in Israel and Washington in
particular, and less so in Egypt, where Mubarak used the assassination
as an excuse to declare martial law. The law was subsequently referred
to by its euphemism, the “emergency law.” It has remained in effect
ever since.
http://middleeast.about.com/od/egypt/a/me081006a.htm

Keep in mind Mubarak hand picked the members of the council to implement this commitment, resulting in the actions undertaken by the regime, fully supported and funded by the US, which was honouring its own commitments of the Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty
My opinion is that high profile assassinations of political leaders are undertaken to implement a new handpicked leader or ruler that is in opposition of the existing leader, and who is actively promoting the implementation of policies held by interested parties prior to the assassination.
It is why Mubarak has resigned, as opposed to being assassinated. It is why many have worked behind the scenes to ensure the Supreme Military Council remain, and preserving its structure.
It is why I hold a heavy heart, as any breach of this treaty will result in escalating conflict in the ME, and the conflict will be invoked by Israel declaring a breach of the treaty.
Any attack by extremist factions of the Egyptian people against the security of the Israeli nation may be the catalyst. This may include an overthrow or attempted overthrow of the regimes military council by factions within its own ranks, or by shear numbers and will of the Egyptian people.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 7:14 pm

Joe Bese wrote:Are those your italics 4eva? That's an interesting interpretation, but I don't think it's the only one. It would be good to put the past away.
Yes my italics.
I agree it is not the only interpretation. And I also agree it would be good to put the past away. However, and again simply my opinion, that to put this past away would need the dismantling of the current Egyptian political and military structure to reflect the peaceful will of the people. Which by definition would mean revoking the Israel-Egypt treaty. Which any attempt to do so would allow Israel to claim a breach of said treaty in the interests of Israeli national security.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 7:18 pm

goodmockingbird wrote:
Joe Bese wrote: It would be good to put the past away.

The Egyptians have set a new highwater mark for civilisation itself, no matter how one defines it.

Without the burden of corruption, they can prosper like never before and turn their energies to rebuilding their infrastructure and industry to new heights.

Egypt can become the shining beacon of the Mediteranean.

Fences make good neighbors, but industrious, prosperous, self-respecting people make wonderful neighbors.

If anything, Israel has less to be worried about now, than they did before.
Hi Mockingbird.
Israel has been known to impersonate opposing factions for the own interests.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:12 pm

Holy shit. I went back and clicked on the links relating to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty and the Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement.
The links have been changed.
Upon searching for the the term Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty at the website the following message appears...
The Israel
Foreign Ministry website is currently unavailable ...

We
are dealing with the problem and apologize for the inconvenience

Please try again
soon
Apparently the page is under construction.....

Searched for the term Israel-US memorandum of agreement and this came up...
his page can't be displayed due to a violation of the MFA website
security system.






If you tried to access this page from an outside link, we suggest that
you first



enter
the MFA website through our homepage.






If you encountered this problem from a link on our website, we would
appreciate



your
reporting this error to feedback@mfa.gov.il






Please let us know which page you tried to access, and the page on


which the link appeared.











Thank you for your cooperation in helping us to improve our service.
LLL, I think I might have stepped on someones toes...
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by Guest on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:12 pm

I believe the revolution will start in the workplace, schools, farms, and neighborhoods. The fight for or against: jobs, pay and working conditions, illiteracy, food production, and quality of life, then national goals needing a vision forged from below financed by blood sweat and tears, lastly money. Any obstacles to be honestly overcome, any violent prevention to be counter revolutionary...


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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by Joe Bese on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:17 pm

4EVAFREEisME wrote:Holy shit. I went back and clicked on the links relating to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty and the Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement.
The links have been changed.
Upon searching for the the term Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty at the website the following message appears...
The Israel
Foreign Ministry website is currently unavailable ...

We
are dealing with the problem and apologize for the inconvenience

Please try again
soon
Apparently the page is under construction.....

Searched for the term Israel-US memorandum of agreement and this came up...
his page can't be displayed due to a violation of the MFA website
security system.






If you tried to access this page from an outside link, we suggest that
you first



enter
the MFA website through our homepage.






If you encountered this problem from a link on our website, we would
appreciate



your
reporting this error to feedback@mfa.gov.il






Please let us know which page you tried to access, and the page on


which the link appeared.











Thank you for your cooperation in helping us to improve our service.
LLL, I think I might have stepped on someones toes...
Weird.

The internet may be struggling all over that part of the world.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by Guest on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:18 pm

4EVAFREEisME wrote:Holy shit. I went back and clicked on the links relating to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty and the Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement.
The links have been changed.

Upon searching for the the term Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty at the website the following message appears.

The Israel Foreign Ministry website is currently unavailable ...

We are dealing with the problem and apologize for the inconvenience

Please try again

Searched for the term Israel-US memorandum of agreement and this came up...

This page can't be displayed due to a violation of the MFA website
security system.

Interesting.

I was sort of thinking about the Peace Treaty, considering the calls from govts for the new Egypt to respect it. I was thinking Well, why wouldnt they respect it? So I was wanting to read it. I did hear that one clause is that Egypt cannot militarize the Sanai. So I thought: Hmmm I wonder what other clause they might have? It may very well be that Egypt will want to re negotiate... Not the peace, but things concerning their sovereignty.

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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:26 pm

Joe Bese wrote:
4EVAFREEisME wrote:Holy shit. I went back and clicked on the links relating to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty and the Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement.
The links have been changed.
Upon searching for the the term Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty at the website the following message appears...
The Israel
Foreign Ministry website is currently unavailable ...

We
are dealing with the problem and apologize for the inconvenience

Please try again
soon
Apparently the page is under construction.....

Searched for the term Israel-US memorandum of agreement and this came up...
his page can't be displayed due to a violation of the MFA website
security system.






If you tried to access this page from an outside link, we suggest that
you first



enter
the MFA website through our homepage.






If you encountered this problem from a link on our website, we would
appreciate



your
reporting this error to feedback@mfa.gov.il






Please let us know which page you tried to access, and the page on


which the link appeared.











Thank you for your cooperation in helping us to improve our service.
LLL, I think I might have stepped on someones toes...
Weird.

The internet may be struggling all over that part of the world.
Nah, my paranoia demands it must be intentional....
But seriously, this is obviously intentional, whether in response to this thread or otherwise. I believe this to be true as their main page is up. Time will tell I guess.
I just hope it does not adversely effect this site..
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by Guest on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:27 pm

I wonder if Egypt would be willing to annex Gaza, incorporate the Palestinian "problem" as their own. Probably not. But I wonder who'd disagree with that and why?

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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:27 pm

Mexico wrote:
4EVAFREEisME wrote:Holy shit. I went back and clicked on the links relating to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty and the Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement.
The links have been changed.

Upon searching for the the term Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty at the website the following message appears.

The Israel Foreign Ministry website is currently unavailable ...

We are dealing with the problem and apologize for the inconvenience

Please try again

Searched for the term Israel-US memorandum of agreement and this came up...

This page can't be displayed due to a violation of the MFA website
security system.

Interesting.

I was sort of thinking about the Peace Treaty, considering the calls from govts for the new Egypt to respect it. I was thinking Well, why wouldnt they respect it? So I was wanting to read it. I did hear that one clause is that Egypt cannot militarize the Sanai. So I thought: Hmmm I wonder what other clause they might have? It may very well be that Egypt will want to re negotiate... Not the peace, but things concerning their sovereignty.
I am searching for other copies of this these docs now... Not easy to find as it turns out.
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:29 pm

Mexico wrote:I wonder if Egypt would be willing to annex Gaza, incorporate the Palestinian "problem" as their own. Probably not. But I wonder who'd disagree with that and why?
Hi Mex, that is getting a bit too complex for this old dinosaur sized brain to tackle.
I'm working on finding these treaties....
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by Guest on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:33 pm

I believe the generals who now have organized a junta will be behooving to the revolution. I have never said that before about a military junta, but it seems to me that the revolution will guide their behavior,, and will separate the wheat from the chaff, and not allow them to rule top down. Civilian revolutionaries should take their rightful place and steer the State, the military institution convulsing and transforming on their own until all are revolutionaries. It should be quite a sight to see...

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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:33 pm

http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4027330,00.html

The White House says it is important that the next government of Egypt recognize existing accords with Israel.

Spokesman Robert Gibbs says the US partnership with Egypt has
brought stability to the Middle East and, in particular, peace between
Egypt and Israel. The two countries signed a peace treaty in 1979. (AP)


Here ya go peeps....
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:34 pm

Mexico wrote:I believe the generals who now have organized a junta will be behooving to the revolution. I have never said that before about a military junta, but it seems to me that the revolution will guide their behavior,, and will separate the wheat from the chaff, and not allow them to rule top down. Civilian revolutionaries should take their rightful place and steer the State, the military institution convulsing and transforming on their own until all are revolutionaries. It should be quite a sight to see...
I don't think it is gonna happen like the Mex. See above post..
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:38 pm

This is interesting

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/iseglet.html
Exchange of Letters between President Carter and Prime Minister Begin Regarding the Exchange of
Ambassadors between Egypt and Israel

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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:40 pm

Posted in its entirety the
Memorandum of Agreement between the Governments of the United
States of America and the State of Israel



(March 26, 1979)






Recognizing the significance of the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace
between Israel and Egypt and considering the importance of full
implementation of the Treaty of Peace to Israel's security interests and
the contribution of the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace to the security
and development of Israel as well as its significance to peace and
stability in the region and to the maintenance of international peace and
security; and
Recognizing that the withdrawal from Sinai imposes additional heavy
security, military and economic burdens on Israel;
The Governments of the United States and the State of Israel, subject to
their constitutional processes and applicable law, confirm as follows:



  1. In the light of the role of the United States in achieving the
    Treaty of Peace and the parties' desire that the United States continue
    its supportive efforts, the United States will take appropriate measures
    to promote full observance of the Treaty of peace.
  2. Should it be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the United States
    that there has been a violation or threat of violation of the Treaty of
    Peace, enhance friendly and peaceful relations between the parties and
    promote peace in the region, and will take such remedial measures as it
    deems appropriate, which may include diplomatic, economic and military
    measures as described below.
  3. The United States will provide support it deems appropriate for proper
    actions taken by Israel in response to such demonstrated violations of the
    Treaty of Peace. In particular, if a violation of the Treaty of Peace is
    deemed to threaten the security of Israel, including, inter alia, a
    blockade of Israel's use of international waterways, a violation of the
    provisions of the Treaty of Peace concerning limitation of forces or an
    armed attack against Israel, the United States will be prepared to
    consider, on an urgent basis, such measures as the strengthening of the
    United States presence in the area, the providing of emergency supplies to
    Israel, and the exercise of maritime rights in order to put an end to the
    violation.
  4. The United States will support the parties' rights to navigation and
    overflight for access to either country through and over the Strait of
    Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba pursuant to the Treaty of Peace.
  5. The United States will oppose and, if necessary, vote against any
    action or resolution in the United Nations which in its judgments
    adversely affects the Treaty of Peace.
  6. Subject to Congressional authorization and appropriation, the United
    States will endeavor to take into account and will endeavor to be
    responsive to military and economic assistance requirements of Israel.
  7. The United States will continue to impose restrictions on weapons
    supplied by it to any country which prohibit their unauthorized transfer
    to any third party. The United States will not supply or authorize
    transfer of such weapons for use in an armed attack against Israel, and
    will take steps to prevent such unauthorized transfer.
  8. Existing agreements and assurances between the United States and
    Israel are not terminated or altered by the conclusion of the Treaty of
    Peace, except for those contained in Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15 and
    16 of Memorandum of Agreement between the Government of Israel and the
    Government of the United States (United States-Israeli Assurances) of
    September 1, 1975.
  9. This Memorandum of Agreement sets forth the full understandings of the
    United States and Israel with regard to the subject matters covered
    between them hereby, and shall be implemented in accordance with its
    terms.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/moa.html
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Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

Post by 4EVAFREEisME on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:42 pm

and the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in full, without link. It's long...

Sixteen months after
Sadat's visit to Israel, the Israel-Egypt peace treaty was signed in
Washington. It contains nine articles, a military annex, an annex
dealing with the relation between the parties, agreed minutes
interpreting the main articles of the treaty, among them Article 6, the
withdrawal schedule, exchange of ambassadors, security arrangements and
the agreement relating to the autonomy talks. The latter issue was
contained in a letter addressed by President Sadat and Prime Minister
Begin to President Carter.
In a separate Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement,
concluded on the same day, the US spelled out its commitments to Israel
in case the treaty is violated, the role of the UN and the future
supply of military and economic aid to Israel.


Text:
The Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the State of Israel;
PREAMBLE
Convinced
of the urgent necessity of the establishment of a just, comprehensive
and lasting peace in the Middle East in accordance with Security
Council Resolutions 242 and 338;
Reaffirming their adherence to the "Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp David," dated September 17, 1978;
Noting
that the aforementioned Framework as appropriate is intended to
constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel but also
between Israel and each of its other Arab neighbors which is prepared
to negotiate peace with it on this basis;
Desiring
to bring to an end the state of war between them and to establish a
peace in which every state in the area can live in security;
Convinced
that the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel is an
important step in the search for comprehensive peace in the area and
for the attainment of settlement of the Arab- Israeli conflict in all
its aspects;
Inviting
the other Arab parties to this dispute to join the peace process with
Israel guided by and based on the principles of the aforementioned
Framework;
Desiring
as well to develop friendly relations and cooperation between
themselves in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the
principles of international law governing international relations in
times of peace;
Agree
to the following provisions in the free exercise of their sovereignty,
in order to implement the "Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace
Treaty Between Egypt and Israel";

Article I

  1. The state of war between the
    Parties will be terminated and peace will be established between them
    upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
  2. Israel will withdraw all its armed forces and civilians from
    the Sinai behind the international boundary between Egypt and mandated
    Palestine, as provided in the annexed protocol (Annex I ), and Egypt
    will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over the Sinai.
  3. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal provided for in
    Annex I, the parties will establish normal and friendly relations, in
    accordance with Article III (3).



Article II
The
permanent boundary between Egypt and Israel in the recognized
international boundary between Egypt and the former mandated territory
of Palestine, as shown on the map at Annex II, without prejudice to the
issue of the status of the Gaza Strip. The Parties recognize this
boundary as inviolable. Each will respect the territorial integrity of
the other, including their territorial waters and airspace.

Article III

  1. The Parties will apply
    between them the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and
    the principles of international law governing relations among states in
    times of peace. In particular:

    1. They recognize and will respect each other's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence;
    2. They recognize and will respect each other's right to live in peace within their secure and recognized boundaries;
    3. They will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or
      indirectly, against each other and will settle all disputes between
      them by peaceful means.



  2. Each Party undertakes to ensure that acts or threats of
    belligerency, hostility, or violence do not originate from and are not
    committed from within its territory, or by any forces subject to its
    control or by any other forces stationed on its territory , against the
    population, citizens or property of the other Party. Each Party also
    undertakes to refrain from organizing, instigating, inciting, assisting
    or participating in acts or threats of belligerency, hostility,
    subversion or violence against the other Party, anywhere, and
    undertakes to ensure that perpetrators of such acts are brought to
    justice.
  3. The Parties agree that the normal relationship established
    between them will include full recognition, diplomatic, economic and
    cultural relations, termination of economic boycotts and discriminatory
    barriers to the free movement of people and goods, and will guarantee
    the mutual enjoyment by citizens of the due process of law. The process
    by which they undertake to achieve such a relationship parallel to the
    implementation of other provisions of this Treaty is set out in the
    annexed protocol (Annex III).



Article IV

  1. In order to provide maximum
    security for both Parties on the basis of reciprocity, agreed security
    arrangements will be established including limited force zones in
    Egyptian and Israeli territory, and United Nations forces and
    observers, described in detail as to nature and timing in Annex I, and
    other security arrangements the Parties may agree upon.
  2. The Parties agree to the stationing of United Nations
    personnel in areas described in Annex I. The Parties agree not to
    request withdrawal of the United Nations personnel and that these
    personnel will not be removed unless such removal is approved by the
    Security Council of the United Nations, with the affirmative vote of
    the five Permanent Members, unless the Parties otherwise agree.
  3. A Joint Commission will be established to facilitate the implementation of the Treaty, as provided for in Annex I.
  4. The security arrangements provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2
    of this Article may at the request of either party be reviewed and
    amended by mutual agreement of the Parties.



Article V

  1. Ships of Israel, and cargoes
    destined for or coming from Israel, shall enjoy the right of free
    passage through the Suez Canal and its approaches through the Gulf of
    Suez and the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of the Constantinople
    Convention of 1888, applying to all nations, Israeli nationals, vessels
    and cargoes, as well as persons, vessels and cargoes destined for or
    coming from Israel, shall be accorded non- discriminatory treatment in
    all matters connected with usage of the canal.
  2. The Parties consider the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba
    to be international waterways open to all nations for unimpeded and
    non-suspendable freedom of navigation and overflight. The parties will
    respect each other's right to navigation and overflight for access to
    either country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.



Article VI

  1. This Treaty does not affect
    and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and
    obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations.
  2. The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their
    obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of
    any other party and independently of any instrument external to this
    Treaty.
  3. They further undertake to take all the necessary measures for
    the application in their relations of the provisions of the
    multilateral conventions to which they are parties, including the
    submission of appropriate notification to the Secretary General of the
    United Nations and other depositaries of such conventions.
  4. The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with this Treaty.
  5. Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter in the
    event of a conflict between the obligation of the Parties under the
    present Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligations
    under this Treaty will be binding and implemented.



Article VII

  1. Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of this Treaty shall be resolved by negotiations.
  2. Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations shall be resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.


Article VIII
The Parties agree to establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.

Article IX

  1. This Treaty shall enter into force upon exchange of instruments of ratification.
  2. This Treaty supersedes the Agreement between Egypt and Israel of September, 1975.
  3. All protocols, annexes, and maps attached to this Treaty shall be regarded as an integral part hereof.
  4. The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of
    the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions
    of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.




Annex I
Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security Agreements


Article I
Concept of Withdrawal

  1. Israel will complete
    withdrawal of all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai not
    later than three years from the date of exchange of instruments of
    ratification of this Treaty.
  2. To ensure the mutual security of the Parties, the
    implementation of phased withdrawal will be accompanied by the military
    measures and establishment of zones set out in this Annex and in Map 1, hereinafter referred to as "the Zones."
  3. The withdrawal from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases:

    1. The interim withdrawal behind the line from east of El-Arish to Ras
      Mohammed as delineated on Map 2 within nine months from the date of
      exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
    2. The final withdrawal from the Sinai behind the international
      boundary not later than three years from the date of exchange of
      instruments of ratification of this Treaty.



  4. A Joint Commission will be formed immediately after the
    exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty in order to
    supervise and coordinate movements and schedules during the withdrawal,
    and to adjust plans and timetables as necessary within the limits
    established by paragraph 3, above. Details relating to the Joint
    Commission are set out in Article IV of the attached Appendix. The
    Joint Commission will be dissolved upon completion of final Israeli
    withdrawal from the Sinai.



Article II
Determination of Final Lines and Zones

  1. In order to provide maximum
    security for both Parties after the final withdrawal, the lines and the
    Zones delineated on Map 1 are to be established and organized as
    follows:

    1. Zone A

      1. Zone A is bounded on the east by line A (red line) and on the west
        by the Suez Canal and the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, as shown on
        Map 1.
      2. An Egyptian armed force of one mechanized infantry division
        and its military installations, and field fortifications, will be in
        this Zone.
      3. The main elements of that Division will consist of:

        1. Three mechanized infantry brigades.
        2. One armed brigade.
        3. Seven field artillery battalions including up to 126 artillery pieces.
        4. Seven anti-aircraft artillery battalions including individual
          surface-to-air missiles and up to 126 anti-aircraft guns of 37 mm and
          above.
        5. Up to 230 tanks.
        6. Up to 480 armored personnel vehicles of all types.
        7. Up to a total of twenty-two thousand personnel.




    2. Zone B

      1. Zone B is bounded by line B (green line) on the east and by line A (red line) on the west, as shown on Map 1.
      2. Egyptian border units of four battalions equipped with light
        weapons and wheeled vehicles will provide security and supplement the
        civil police in maintaining order in Zone B. The main elements in the
        four Border Battalions will consist of up to a total of four thousand
        personnel.
      3. Land based, short range, low power, coastal warning points
        of the border patrol units may be established on the coast of this
        Zone.
      4. There will be in Zone B field fortifications and military installations for the four border battalions.



    3. Zone C

      1. Zone C is bounded by line B (green line) on the west and the
        International Boundary and the Gulf of Aqaba on the east, as shown on
        Map 1.
      2. Only United Nations forces and Egyptian civil police will be stationed in Zone C.
      3. The Egyptian civil police armed with light weapons will perform normal police functions within this Zone.
      4. The United Nations Force will be deployed within Zone C and perform its functions as defined in Article VI of this annex.
      5. The United Nations Force will be stationed mainly in camps
        located within the following stationing areas shown on Map 1, and will
        establish its precise locations after consultations with Egypt:

        1. In that part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 Km. of
          the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the International Boundary.
        2. In the Sharm el Sheikh area.




    4. Zone D

      1. Zone D is bounded by line D (blue line) on the east and the international boundary on the west, as shown on Map 1.
      2. In this Zone there will be an Israeli limited force of four
        infantry battalions, their military installations, and field
        fortifications, and United Nations observers.
      3. The Israeli forces in Zone D will not include tanks,
        artillery and anti-aircraft missiles except individual surface-to-air
        missiles.
      4. The main elements of the four Israeli infantry battalions
        will consist of up to 180 armored personnel vehicles of all types and
        up to a total of four thousand personnel.




  2. Access across the international boundary shall only be
    permitted through entry check points designated by each Party and under
    its control. Such access shall be in accordance with laws and
    regulations of each country.
  3. Only those field fortifications, military installations,
    forces, and weapons specifically permitted by this Annex shall be in
    the Zones.



Article III
Aerial Military Regime

  1. Flights of combat aircraft
    and reconnaissance flights of Egypt and Israel shall take place only
    over Zones A and D, respectively.
  2. Only unarmed, non-combat aircraft of Egypt and Israel will be stationed in Zones A and D, respectively.
  3. Only Egyptian unarmed transport aircraft will take off and
    land in Zone B and up to eight such aircraft may be maintained in Zone
    B. The Egyptian border unit.,., may be equipped with unarmed
    helicopters to perform their functions in Zone B.
  4. The Egyptian civil police may be equipped with unarmed police helicopters to perform normal police functions in Zone C.
  5. Only civilian airfields maybe built in the Zones.
  6. Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those
    military aerial activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall
    be allowed in the Zones and the airspace above their territorial waters.



Article IV
Naval Regime

  1. Egypt and Israel may base and operate naval vessels along the coasts of Zones A and D, respectively.
  2. Egyptian coast guard boats, lightly armed, may be stationed
    and operate in the territorial waters of Zone B to assist the border
    units in performing their functions in this Zone.
  3. Egyptian civil police equipped with light boats, lightly
    armed, shall perform normal police functions within the territorial
    waters of Zone C.
  4. Nothing in this Annex shall be considered as derogating from
    the right of innocent passage of the naval vessels of either party.
  5. Only civilian maritime ports and installations may be built in the Zones.
  6. Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those
    naval activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed
    in the Zones and in their territorial waters.



Article V
Early Warning Systems
Egypt and Israel may establish and operate early warning systems only in Zones A and D respectively.

Article VI
United Nations Operations

  1. The Parties will request the
    United Nations to provide forces and observers to supervise the
    implementation of this Annex and employ their best efforts to prevent
    any violation of its terms.
  2. With respect to these United Nations forces and observers, as
    appropriate, the Parties agree to request the following arrangements:

    1. Operation of check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation
      posts along the international boundary and line B, and within Zone C.
    2. Periodic verification of the implementation of the
      provisions of this Annex will be carried out not less than twice a
      month unless otherwise agreed by the Parties.
    3. Additional verifications within 48 hours after the receipt of a request from either Party.
    4. Ensuring the freedom of navigation through the Strait of Tiran in accordance with Article V of the Treaty of Peace.



  3. The arrangements described in this article for each zone will
    be implemented in ones A, B, and C by the United Nations Force and in
    Zone D by the United Nations Observers.
  4. United Nations verification teams shall be accompanied by liaison officers of the respective Party.
  5. The United Nations Force and observers will report their findings to both Parties.
  6. The United Nations Force and Observers operating in the Zones
    will enjoy freedom of movement and other facilities necessary for the
    performance of their tasks.
  7. The United Nations Force and Observers are not empowered to authorize the crossing of the international boundary.
  8. The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United
    Nations Force and Observers will be drawn. They "ill be drawn from
    nations other than those which are permanent members of the United
    Nations Security Council.
  9. The Parties agree that the United Nations should make those
    command arrangements that will best assure the effective implementation
    of its responsibilities.




Article VII
Liaison System

  1. Upon dissolution of the Joint
    Commission, a liaison system between the Parties will be established.
    This liaison system is intended to provide an effective method to
    assess progress in the implementation of obligations under the present
    Annex and to resolve any problem that may arise in the course of
    implementation, and refer other unresolved matters to the higher
    military authorities of the two countries respectively for
    consideration. It is also intended to prevent situations resulting from
    errors or misinterpretation on the part of either Party.
  2. An Egyptian liaison office will be established in the city of
    El-Arish and an Israeli liaison office will be established in the city
    of Beer-Sheba. Each office will be headed by an officer of the
    respective country, and assisted by a number of officers.
  3. A direct telephone link between the two offices will be set up
    and also direct telephone lines with the United Nations command will be
    maintained by both offices.



Article VIII
Respect for War Memorials
Each Party
undertakes to preserve in good condition the War Memorials erected in
the memory of soldiers of the other Party, namely those erected by
Egypt in Israel, and shall permit access to such monuments.

Article IX
Interim Arrangements
The
withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians behind the interim
withdrawal line, and the conduct of the forces of the Parties and the
United Nations prior to the final withdrawal, will be governed by the
attached Appendix and Map 2.


Appendix to Annex I
Organization of Movements in the Sinai


Article I
Principles of Withdrawal

  1. The withdrawal of Israeli
    armed forces and civilians from the Sinai will be accomplished in two
    phases as described in Article I of Annex I. The description and timing
    of the withdrawal are included in this Appendix. The Joint Commission
    will develop and present to the Chief Coordinator of the United Nations
    forces in the Middle East the details of these phases not later than
    one month before the initiation of each phase of withdrawal.
  2. Both parties agree on the following principles for the sequences of military movements.

    1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article IX, paragraph 2, of this
      Treaty, until Israeli armed forces complete withdrawal from the current
      J and M Lines established by the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement of
      September 1975, hereinafter referred to as the 1975 Agreement, up to
      the interim withdrawal line, all military arrangements existing under
      that Agreement will remain in effect, except those military
      arrangements otherwise provided for in this Appendix.
    2. As Israeli armed forces withdraw, United Nations forces will
      immediately enter the evacuated areas to establish interim and
      temporary buffer zones as shown on Maps 2 and 3, respectively, for the
      purpose of maintaining a separation of forces. United Nations forces'
      deployment will precede the movement of any other personnel into these
      areas.
    3. Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces
      have evacuated any area located in Zone A, units of Egyptian armed
      forces shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of
      this Appendix.
    4. Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces
      have evacuated any area located in Zones A or B, Egyptian border units
      shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this
      Appendix, and will function in accordance with the provisions of
      Article II of Annex I.
    5. Egyptian civil police will enter evacuated areas immediately
      after the United Nations forces to perform normal police functions.
    6. Egyptian naval units shall deploy in the Gulf of Suez in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix.
    7. Except those movements mentioned above, deployments of
      Egyptian armed forces and the activities covered in Annex I will be
      offered in the evacuated areas when Israeli armed forces have completed
      their withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.



Article II
Subphases of the Withdrawal to the Interim Withdrawal Line

  1. The withdrawal to the interim
    withdrawal line will be accomplished in subphases as described in this
    Article and as shown on Map 3. Each subphase will be completed within
    the indicated number of months from the date of the exchange of
    instruments of ratification of this Treaty:

    1. First subphase: within two months, Israeli armed forces will
      withdraw from the area of El Arish, including the town of El Arish and
      its airfield, shown as Area I on Map 3.
    2. Second subphase: within three months, Israeli armed forces
      will withdraw from the area between line M of the 1975 Agreement and
      line A, shown as Area II on Map 3.
    3. Third subphase: within five months, Israeli armed forces
      will withdraw from the area east and south of Area II, shown as Area
      III on Map 3.
    4. Fourth subphase: within seven months, Israeli armed forces
      will withdraw from the area of El Tor- Ras El Kenisa, shown as Area IV
      on Map 3.
    5. Fifth subphase: Within nine months, Israeli armed forces
      will withdraw from the remaining areas west of the interim withdrawal
      line, including the areas of Santa Katrina and the areas east of the
      Giddi and Mitla passes, shown as Area V on Map 3, thereby completing
      Israeli withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.



  2. Egyptian forces will deploy in the areas evacuated by Israeli armed forces as follows:

    1. Up to one-third of the Egyptian armed forces in the Sinai in
      accordance with the 1975 Agreement will deploy in the portions of Zone
      A lying within Area I, until the completion of interim withdrawal.
      Thereafter, Egyptian armed forces as described Article II of Annex I
      will be deployed in Zone A up to the limits of the interim zone.
    2. The Egyptian naval activity in accordance with Article IV of
      Annex I will commence along the coasts of areas I, III and IV, upon
      completion of the second, third, and fourth subphases, respectively.
    3. Of the Egyptian border units described in Article II of
      Annex I, upon completion of the first subphase one battalion will be
      deployed in Area I. A second battalion will deployed in Area II upon
      completion of the second subphase. A third battalion will deployed in
      Area Ill upon completion of the third subphase. The second and third
      battalions mentioned above may also be deployed in any of the
      subsequently evacuated areas of the southern Sinai.



  3. United Nations forces in Buffer Zone I of the 1976 Agreement
    will redeploy enable the deployment of Egyptian forces described above
    upon the completion of the subphase, but will otherwise continue to
    function in accordance with the provisions of that Agreement in the
    remainder of that zone until the completion of interim withdrawal, as
    indicated in Article I of this Appendix.
  4. Israeli convoys may use the roads south and east of the main
    road junction east of El Arish to evacuate Israeli forces up to the
    completion of interim withdrawal. These convoys will proceed in
    daylight upon four hours notice to the Egyptian liaison group and
    United Nations forces, will be escorted by United Nations forces, and
    will be in accordance with schedules coordinated by the Joint
    Commission. An Egyptian liaison officer will accompany convoys to
    assure uninterrupted movement. The Joint Commission may approve other
    arrangements for convoys.



Article III
United Nations Forces

  1. The Parties shall request
    that United Nations forces be deployed as necessary to perform the
    functions described in the Appendix up to the time of completion of
    final Israeli withdrawal. For that purpose, the Parties agree to the
    redeployment of the United Nations Emergency Force.
  2. United Nations forces will supervise the implementation of
    this Appendix and will employ their best efforts to prevent any
    violation of its terms.
  3. When United Nations forces deploy in accordance with the
    provisions of Article and II of this Appendix, they will perform the
    functions of verification in limited force zones in accordance with
    Article VI of Annex I, and will establish check points, reconnaissance
    patrols, and observation posts in the temporary buffer zones described
    in Article II above. Other functions of the United Nations forces which
    concern the interim buffer zone are described in Article V of this
    Appendix.



Article IV
Joint Commission and Liaison

  1. The Joint Commission referred
    to in Article IV of this Treaty will function from the date of exchange
    of instruments of ratification of this Treaty up to the date of
    completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai.
  2. The Joint Commission will be composed of representatives of
    each Party headed by senior officers. This Commission shall invite a
    representative of the United Nations when discussing subjects
    concerning the United Nations, or when either Party requests United
    Nations presence. Decisions of the Joint Commission will be reached by
    agreement of Egypt and Israel.
  3. The Joint Commission will supervise the implementation of the
    arrangements described in Annex I and this Appendix. To this end, and
    by agreement of both Parties, it will:

    1. coordinate military movements described in this Appendix and supervise their implementation;
    2. address and seek to resolve any problem arising out of the
      implementation of Annex I and this Appendix, and discuss any violations
      reported by the United Nations Force and Observers and refer to the
      Governments of Egypt and Israel any unresolved problems;
    3. assist the United Nations Force and Observers in the
      execution of their mandates, and deal with the timetables of the
      periodic verification when referred to it by the Parties as provided
      for in Annex I and this Appendix;
    4. organize the demarcation of the international boundary and all lines and zones described in Annex I and this Appendix;
    5. supervise the handing over of the main installations in the Sinai from Israel to Egypt;
    6. agree on necessary arrangements for finding and returning missing bodies of Egyptian and Israeli soldiers;
    7. organize the setting up and operation of entry check points
      along the El Arish-Ras Mohammed line in accordance with the provisions
      of Article 4 of Annex III;
    8. conduct its operations through the use of joint liaison
      teams consisting of one Israeli representative and one Egyptian
      representative, provided from a standing Liaison Group, which will
      conduct activities as directed by the Joint Commission;
    9. provide liaison and coordination to the United Nations
      command implementing provisions of the Treaty, and, through the joint
      liaison teams, maintain local coordination and cooperation with the
      United Nations Force stationed in specific areas or United Nations
      Observers monitoring specific areas for any assistance as needed;
    10. discuss any other matters which the Parties by agreement may place before it.



  4. Meetings of the Joint Commission shall be held at least once a
    month. In the event that either Party of the Command of the United
    Nations Force requests a specific meeting, it will be convened within
    24 hours.
  5. The Joint Committee will meet in the buffer zone until the
    completion of the interim withdrawal and in El Arish and Beer-Sheba
    alternately afterwards. The first meeting will be held not later than
    two weeks after the entry into force of this Treaty.



Article V
Definition of the Interim Buffer Zone and Its Activities

  1. An interim buffer zone, by
    which the United Nations Force will effect a separation of Egyptian and
    Israeli elements, will be established west of and adjacent to the
    interim withdrawal line as shown on Map 2 after implementation of
    Israeli withdrawal and deployment behind the interim withdrawal line.
    Egyptian civil police equipped with light weapons will perform normal
    police functions within this zone.
  2. The United Nations Force will operate check points,
    reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts within the interim buffer
    zone in order to ensure compliance with the terms of this Article.
  3. In accordance with arrangements agreed upon by both Parties
    and to be coordinated by the Joint Commission, Israeli personnel will
    operate military technical installations at four specific locations
    shown on Map 2 and designated as T1 (map central coordinate 57163940),
    T2 (map central coordinate 59351541), T3 (map central coordinate
    5933-1527), and T4 (map central coordinate 61130979) under the
    following principles:

    1. The technical installations shall be manned by technical and
      administrative personnel equipped with small arms required for their
      protection (revolvers, rifles, sub-machine guns, light machine guns,
      hand grenades, and ammunition), as follows:

      • T1 - up to 150 personnel
      • T2 and T3 - up to 350 personnel
      • T4 - up to 200 personnel



  4. Israeli personnel will not carry weapons outside the sites, except officers who may carry personal weapons.
  5. Only a third party agreed to by Egypt and Israel will enter
    and conduct inspections within the perimeters of technical
    installations in the buffer zone. The third party will conduct
    inspections in a random manner at least once a month. The inspections
    will verify the nature of the operation of the installations and the
    weapons and personnel therein. The third party will immediately report
    to the Parties any divergence from an installation's visual and
    electronic surveillance or communications role.
  6. Supply of the installations, visits for technical and
    administrative purposes, and replacement of personnel and equipment
    situated in the sites, may occur uninterruptedly from the United
    Nations check points to the perimeter of the technical installations,
    after checking and being escorted by only the United Nations forces.
  7. Israel will be permitted to introduce into its technical
    installations items required for the proper functioning of the
    installations and personnel.
  8. As determined by the Joint Commission, Israel will be permitted to:

    1. Maintain in its installations fire-fighting and general maintenance
      equipment as well as wheeled administrative vehicles and mobile
      engineering equipment necessary for the maintenance of the sites. All
      vehicles shall be unarmed.
    2. Within the sites and in the buffer zone, maintain roads,
      water lines, and communications cables which serve the site. At each of
      the three installation locations (T1, T2 and T3, and T4), this
      maintenance may be performed with up to two unarmed wheeled vehicles
      and by up to twelve unarmed personnel with only necessary equipment,
      including heavy engineering equipment if needed. This maintenance may
      be performed three times a week, except for special problems, and only
      after giving the United Nations four hours notice. The teams will be
      escorted by the United Nations.



  9. Movement to and from the technical installations will take
    place only during daylight hours. Access to, and exit from, the
    technical installations shall be as follows:

    1. T1: Through a United Nations check point, and via the road between
      Abu Aweigila and the intersection of the Abu Aweigila road and the
      Gebel Libni road (at Km. 161), as shown on Map 2.
    2. T2 and T3: through a United Nations checkpoint and via the
      road constructed across the buffer zone to Gebel Katrina, as shown on
      Map 2.
    3. T2, T3, and T4: via helicopters flying within a corridor at
      the times, and according to a flight profile, agreed to by the Joint
      Commission. The helicopters will be checked by the United Nations Force
      at landing sites outside the perimeter of the installations.



  10. Israel will inform the United Nations Force at least one hour
    in advance of each intended movement to and from the installations.
  11. Israel shall be entitled to evacuate sick and wounded and
    summon medical experts and medical teams at any time after giving
    immediate notice to the United Nations Force.



  • The details of the above principles and all other matters in
    this Article requiring coordination by the Parties will be handled by
    the Joint Commission.
  • These technical installations will be withdrawn when Israeli
    forces withdraw from the interim withdrawal line, or at a time agreed
    by the parties.



  • Article VI
    Disposition of Installations and Military Barriers
    Disposition
    of installations and military barriers will be determined by the
    Parties in accordance with the following guidelines:

    1. Up to three weeks before
      Israeli withdrawal from any area, the Joint Commission will arrange for
      Israeli and Egyptian liaison and technical teams to conduct a joint
      inspection of all appropriate installations to agree upon condition of
      structures and articles which will be transferred to Egyptian control
      and to arrange for such transfer. Israel will declare, at that time,
      its plans for disposition of installations and articles within the
      installations.
    2. Israel undertakes to transfer to Egypt all agreed
      infrastructures, utilities, and installations intact, inter alia,
      airfields, roads, pumping stations, and ports. Israel will present to
      Egypt the information necessary for the maintenance and operation of
      the facilities. Egyptian technical teams will be permitted to observe
      and familiarize themselves with the operation of these facilities for a
      period of up to two weeks prior to transfer.
    3. When Israel relinquishes Israeli military water points near El
      Arish and El Tor, Egyptian technical teams will assume control of those
      installations and ancillary equipment in accordance with an orderly
      transfer process arranged beforehand by the Joint Commission. Egypt
      undertakes to continue to make available at all water supply points the
      normal quantity of currently available water up to the time Israel
      withdraws behind the international boundary, unless otherwise agreed in
      the Joint Commission.
    4. Israel will make its best effort to remove or destroy all
      military barriers, including obstacles and minefields, in the areas and
      adjacent waters from which it withdraws, according to the following
      concept:

      1. Military barriers will be cleared first from areas near populations, roads and major installations and utilities.
      2. For those obstacles and minefields which cannot be removed or
        destroyed prior to Israeli withdrawal, Israel will provide detailed
        maps to Egypt and the United Nations through the Joint Commission not
        later than 15 days before entry of United Nations forces into the
        affected areas.
      3. Egyptian engineers will enter those areas after United Nations
        forces enter to conduct barrier clearance operations in accordance with
        Egyptian plans to be submitted prior to implementation.



    Article VII
    Surveillance Activities

    1. Aerial surveillance activities during the withdrawal will be carried out as follows:

      1. Both Parties request the United States to continue airborne
        surveillance flights in accordance with previous agreements until the
        completion of final Israeli withdrawal.
      2. Flight profiles will cover the Limited Forces Zones to
        monitor the limitations on forces and armaments, and to determine that
        Israeli armed forces have withdrawn from the areas described in Article
        II of Annex I, Article II of this Appendix, and Maps 2 and 3, and that
        these forces thereafter remain behind their lines. Special inspection
        flights may be flown at the request of either Party or of the United
        Nations.
      3. Only the main elements in the military organizations of each
        Party, as described in Annex I and in this Appendix, will be reported.



    2. Both Parties request the United States operated Sinai Field
      Mission to continue its operations in accordance with previous
      agreements until completion of the Israeli withdrawal from the area
      east of the Giddi and Mitla Passes. Thereafter, the Mission be
      terminated.



    Article VIII
    Exercise of Egyptian Sovereignty
    Egypt will
    resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over evacuated parts of the
    Sinai upon Israeli withdrawal as provided for in Article I of this
    Treaty.

    ANNEX II
    Map of Israel-Egypt International Boundary


    ANNEX III
    Protocol Concerning Relations of the Parties

    Article 1
    Diplomatic and Consular Relations

    The Parties
    agree to establish diplomatic and consular relations and to exchange
    ambassadors upon completion of the interim withdrawal.

    Article 2
    Economic and Trade Relations


    1. The Parties agree to remove
      all discriminatory barriers to normal economic relations and to
      terminate economic boycotts of each other upon completion of the
      interim withdrawal.
    2. As soon as possible, and not later than six months after the
      completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties will enter
      negotiations with a view to concluding an agreement on trade and
      commerce for the purpose of promoting beneficial economic relations.



    Article 3
    Cultural Relations


    1. The Parties agree to establish normal cultural relations following completion of the interim withdrawal.
    2. They agree on the desirability of cultural exchanges in all
      fields, and shall, as soon as possible and not later than six months
      after completion of the interim withdrawal, enter into negotiations
      with a view to concluding a cultural agreement for this purpose.



    Article 4
    Freedom of Movement


    1. Upon completion of the
      interim withdrawal, each Party will permit the free movement of the
      nationals and vehicles of the other into and within its territory
      according to the general rules applicable to nationals and vehicles of
      other states. Neither Party will impose discriminatory restrictions on
      the free movement of persons and vehicles from its territory to the
      territory of the other.
    2. Mutual unimpeded access to places of religious and historical significance will be provided on a non- discriminatory basis.


    Article 5
    Cooperation for Development and Good Neighborly Relations


    1. The Parties recognize a
      mutuality of interest in good neighbourly relations and agree to
      consider means to promote such relations.
    2. The Parties will cooperate in promoting peace, stability and
      development in their region. Each agrees to consider proposals the
      other may wish to make to this end.
    3. The Parties shall seek to foster mutual understanding and
      tolerance and will, accordingly, abstain from hostile propaganda
      against each other.



    Article 6
    Transportation and Telecommunications


    1. The Parties recognize as
      applicable to each other the rights, privileges and obligations
      provided for by the aviation agreements to which they are both party,
      particularly by the Convention on International Civil Aviation, 1944
      ("The Chicago Convention") and the International Air Services Transit
      Agreement, 1944.
    2. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal any declaration of
      national emergency by a party under Article 89 of the Chicago
      Convention will not be applied to the other party on a discriminatory
      basis.
    3. Egypt agrees that the use of airfields left by Israel near
      El-Arish, Rafah, Ras El-Nagb and Sharm El- Sheikh shall be for civilian
      purposes only, including possible commercial use by all nations.
    4. As soon as possible and not later than six months after the
      completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties shall enter into
      negotiations for the purpose of concluding a civil aviation agreement.
    5. The Parties will reopen and maintain roads and railways
      between their countries and will consider further road and rail links.
      The Parties further agree that a highway will be constructed and
      maintained between Egypt, Israel and Jordan near Eilat with guaranteed
      free and peaceful passage of persons, vehicles and goods between Egypt
      and Jordan, without prejudice to their sovereignty over that part of
      the highway which falls within their respective territory.
    6. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, normal postal,
      telephone, telex, data facsimile, wireless and cable communications and
      television relay services by cable, radio and satellite shall be
      established between the two Parties in accordance with all relevant
      international conventions and regulations.
    7. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party shall
      grant normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the other,
      as well as vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from the other.
      Such access will be granted on the same conditions generally applicable
      to vessels and cargoes of other nations. Article 5 of the Treaty of
      Peace will be implemented upon the exchange of instruments of
      ratification of the aforementioned treaty.



    Article 7
    Enjoyment of Human Rights

    The Parties
    affirm their commitment to respect and observe human rights and
    fundamental freedoms for all, and they will promote these rights and
    freedoms in accordance with the United Nations Charter.

    Article 8
    Territorial Seas

    Without
    prejudice to the provisions of Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace each
    Party recognizes the right of the vessels of the other Party to
    innocent passage through its territorial sea in accordance with the
    rules of international law.


    AGREED MINUTES

    Article I
    Egypt's
    resumption of the exercise of full sovereignty over the Sinai provided
    for in paragraph 2 of Article I shall occur with regard to each area
    upon Israel's withdrawal from the area.
    Article IV
    It is agreed
    between the parties that the review provided for in Article IV (4) will
    be undertaken when requested by either party, commencing within three
    months of such a request, but that any amendment can be made only by
    mutual agreement of both parties.
    Article V
    The second
    sentence of paragraph 2 of Article V shall not be construed as limiting
    the first sentence of that paragraph. The foregoing is not to be
    construed as contravening the second sentence of paragraph 2 of Article
    V, which reads as follows: "The Parties will respect each other's right
    to navigation and overflight for access to either country through the
    Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba."
    Article VI (2)
    The
    provisions of Article VI shall not be construed in contradiction to the
    provisions of the framework for peace in the Middle East agreed at Camp
    David. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the
    provisions of Article VI (2) of the Treaty, which reads as follows:
    "The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under
    this Treaty, without regard to action of any other Party and
    independently of any instrument external to this Treaty."
    Article VI (5)
    It is agreed
    by the Parties that there is no assertion that this Treaty prevails
    over other Treaties or agreements or that other Treaties or agreements
    prevail over this Treaty. The foregoing is not to be construed as
    contravening the provisions of Article VI (5) of the Treaty, which
    reads as follows: "Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations
    Charter, in the event of a conflict between the obligations of the
    Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other obligations,
    the obligation under this Treaty will be binding and implemented."
    Annex I
    Article VI, Paragraph 8, of Annex I provides as follows:
    "The Parties
    shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations forces and
    observers will be drawn. They will be drawn from nations other than
    those which are permanent members of the United Nations Security
    Council."
    The Parties have agreed as follows:
    "With
    respect to the provisions of paragraph 8, Article VI, of Annex 1, if no
    agreement is reached between the Parties, they will accept or support a
    U.S. proposal concerning the composition of the United Nations force
    and observers."
    Annex III
    The Treaty
    of Peace and Annex III thereto provide for establishing normal economic
    relations between the Parties. In accordance herewith, it is agreed
    that such relations will include normal commercial sales of oil by
    Egypt to Israel, and that Israel shall be fully entitled to make bids
    for Egyptian-origin oil not needed for Egyptian domestic oil
    consumption, and Egypt and its oil concessionaires will entertain bids
    made by Israel, on the same basis and terms as apply to other bidders
    for such oil.


    For the Government
    of Israel
    For the Government of the
    Arab Republic of Egypt

    Witnessed by:
    Jimmy Carter
    President of the United States of America

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    4EVAFREEisME

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    Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

    Post by Guest on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:52 pm

    4EVAFREEisME wrote:
    Mexico wrote:I believe the generals who now have organized a junta will be behooving to the revolution. I have never said that before about a military junta, but it seems to me that the revolution will guide their behavior,, and will separate the wheat from the chaff, and not allow them to rule top down. Civilian revolutionaries should take their rightful place and steer the State, the military institution convulsing and transforming on their own until all are revolutionaries. It should be quite a sight to see...
    I don't think it is gonna happen like the Mex. See above post..

    Well I dont think the Peace Treaty, whatever clauses may be challenged, is the priority. It would be stupid to get entangled in such a dispute with Israel at this time. The revolution is just beginning, and if their is unfavorable clauses in the Peace Treaty vis a vie Egypt's sovereignty or even the intolerable blockade of the Gaza on Egypt's doorstep (which destabilizes Egypt), then the status quo will probably prevail for the moment. What happens inside Egypt will have to work itself out first...

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    Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

    Post by Guest on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:55 pm

    the United States continue its supportive efforts, the United States will take appropriate measures to promote full observance of the Treaty of peace.

    Sorry, that is unacceptable, I would think. I mean from an Egyptian POV. I mean, granting a right to the US to interfere in a binational issue? Come on----

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    Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

    Post by Guest on Fri Feb 11, 2011 8:59 pm

    If the US wants to interfere they can do it through intl mechanisms. They dont need a binational Peace Treaty to spell it out.


    Last edited by Mexico on Fri Feb 11, 2011 9:12 pm; edited 2 times in total

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    Re: Egypt! Celebrating now. The 1st battle won!!

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